Trends in Technology of Operative Antibiotic Therapy: A Mini-Review
Bone and periprosthetic joint infections are frequent complications of orthopaedic surgeries, leading to significant morbidity and financial burden. Current standard of care involves revision surgeries and a prolonged antibiotic course, usually with mixed results. This review serves to highlight emerging technologies aimed to treat such chronic infections. There is a need for biomaterials that maintain structural integrity as well as promoting an antibiotic-rich environment. Calcium phosphate cement infused with antibiotics has achieved moderate success due to its mechanical properties. Similarly, bioactive glasses loaded with antibiotics such as silicate and borate have the potential to transform into hydroxyapatite, providing structural support. Novel research developments include the coating of titanium implants with silver or other antimicrobial materials. This involves coating the implant with a superficial layer of antibiotic-infused hydrogel film as a drug-eluting device. Polydopamine biochemistry, polyethylene glycol brushes, and steric polymers may be used to inhibit the formation of microbial biofilms.